Detecting probability of ice formation on overhead lines of the Dutch railway network

Ice formation along the overhead lines is a potential source of infrastructure failure and transportation disruption. Modelling ice formation over structures is challenging because it may occur at a very local scale, often far away from measuring stations. Experts in the field have empirically defined models of ice accretion under laboratory conditions. However, the significant number and complexity of the geophysical parameters included in these models, poses major hurdles for their application at the national level.